A surgical navigation system is a medical equipment based on the principle of high-precision stereoscopic vision, and has now become an essential equipment for the development of computer-assisted surgeries, as they guide the movements of the surgeon during surgery, showing the real-time position of each instrument and anatomical structure. This device enables the use of digital images in surgical procedures, providing surgeons with the opportunity to plan before surgery and to use instruments effectively during surgery.
The technologies used by such systems may be mechanical, electromagnetic or optical. The most common are optical devices, and these are classified as passive or active. In the former, cameras can locate specific markers such as reflective white, shape or particular color, while active systems can locate LEDs.